The keto (ketogenic) diet is a new trend in dietary nutrition. The keto diet started gaining the greatest popularity in 2017 and continues to this day.
The keto diet is an approach to a healthy lifestyle. Preferably natural food products that suit the needs of the human body with the lowest fat and carbohydrate content.
The ketogenic diet is the newest version of the low-carb diet.
Keto Diet Principles
The main principle of the keto diet is low-carb foods. The ketogenic diet is based on processing the body's fatty acids. The breakdown of animal fats that enter the body with foods without the interference of carbohydrates is the key to a healthy diet with this method.
The low-carb keto diet is very popular among obese people, among people who want to lose weight or stay in shape.
With no minimum or no carbohydrates in the body, fat burning occurs rapidly, a person begins to lose weight. Fat begins to be excreted from the body and processed into fatty acids then becomes keto body.
Ketone bodies are fat-breaking products produced by the liver. With active energy expenditure or prolonged fasting, to obtain energy, the body begins to break down the fat it stores itself.
The breakdown of fat and the formation of ketone bodies is called ketogenesis and is a completely natural process for the human body. Ketogenesis does not lead to drastic weight loss.
Keto diet features
The hallmark of the keto diet is the substitution of the energy source provided - carbohydrates into fat, or rather decaying products - ketone bodies. In order to realign the body and based on individual characteristics, it is necessary to reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed from 50 to 20 grams per day. It can take 2 to 4 weeks for the body to fully adapt to the new nutritional system. The peak form of fat burning is achieved by following a balanced diet.
The characteristics of the keto diet from all other types of diets are the limited amount of carbohydrates in the body, low protein content, and the presence of fat. The daily intake of carbohydrates in food should not exceed 20 grams per day. Ketones, a byproduct of animal fat that the body uses to produce energy, must have a fat to protein to carbohydrate ratio of 2 to 1. To maintain a normal metabolism, the body must accept large amounts of fat. 75% of the calories in your daily diet should come from fat, the rest being carbohydrates and protein. The product calorie intake per day should not exceed 5000 kcal. The diet does not limit the time to eat, you can eat safely after 18 hours.
The less a person eats high-carbohydrate foods, the more effective the diet is in suppressing hunger.
The main part of your daily diet should be fat, followed by protein, and finally carbohydrates. The peculiarity of this diet, unlike the others, is that salt intake is not restricted here, which restores electrolyte balance.
In the early days of the diet, you should gradually reduce the amount of carbohydrates you eat.
With the principle of strict adherence to the keto diet for weight loss, a person can easily lose 3-5 kilograms of weight in a month without compromising their health, and reduce the amount of adipose tissue.
Athletes are more likely to follow a cyclic ketogenic diet, burn fat, their bodies stand out more, and increase muscle mass. The reason for this change lies in the transformation of the hormonal background and an increase in the process of formation of growth hormone. Diet principles are strictly regulated by a training plan.
Benefits of the Keto Diet
The benefits of the keto diet have been scientifically proven and approved by nutritionists. In addition to losing or maintaining weight, the condition of skin, hair, nails improves, food metabolism is normalized, metabolism improves, and immunity increases.
Studies have shown that people who are overweight and have high cholesterol, following the keto diet for 56 weeks, not only lose more than 25 kilograms, but also increase their blood sugar and cholesterol levels significantly.
With care, doctors recommend following the diet of cancer patients. It is well known that cancer cells actively eat glucose, completely exclude it from food and follow a carbohydrate-free diet, diseased cells gradually lose their activity.
For lovers of independent weight loss, without a medical prescription, the easiest suitable diet option - the keto lifestyle.
The ketogenic diet is widely used among sports athletes who require high endurance: marathons, triathlons, cycling, extreme sports.
This diet promotes the burning of fat for the production of an efficient energy source, thus contributing to the conservation and economical consumption of glycogen (animal starch) during prolonged intense activity.
The obvious benefits of the keto diet are increased general well-being, emotional mood, energy spikes, increased efficiency, increased brain activity.
The ketogenic diet is more of a healthy diet, but only healthy people can stick to it on their own. Before starting such a diet, you need to consult a specialist, he will tell you what pitfalls there may be and the best way to get out of them in case of deterioration of health.
Cons of the keto diet
Compared to other weight loss diets, ketogenic diets are more effective, but long-term adherence can have different consequences.
The downside of the keto diet is that it doesn't work for everyone. When glucose levels are low, the body's glycogen stores are depleted. With the sharp switch from a regular to a ketogenic diet, many people experience dizziness, weakness and drowsiness, and coordination difficulties.
If you experience any of the following symptoms you should stop following the ketogenic diet:
- degrades performance and impairs concentration;
- increases fatigue;
- bad smell of acetone from the mouth;
- difficulties with the digestive process;
- bad blood count;
- frequent urination;
- persistent dry mouth;
- decreased appetite.
- lack of minerals and vitamins in the body.
Against the background of high-fat ketone nutrition, there can be excess ammonia in the blood, which leads to toxic poisoning of the body and disruption of hormonal levels.
In the first week of the diet, you may feel chills or fever, tiredness, mild nausea, irritability. You need to drink as much water as possible. Symptoms usually go away within a week, and the body gradually adapts to get energy from fat stores.
To regulate nutrition, special test strips are used, which display the level of ketones and glucose in the blood.
List of allowed and forbidden foods on the keto diet
Eating in this way must be approached with discretion. There is a specific list of foods that are allowed and prohibited on the keto diet.
First, let's see what you can eat on the keto diet:
- You can eat all kinds of meat: beef, pork, chicken, turkey, bacon.
- It is permissible to eat seafood and all fatty fish: salmon, chum salmon, mackerel.
- A wide variety of dairy products: fatty cottage cheese and yogurt, cream, cheese, butter.
- You can add any seasonings during cooking. Vegetable salads can be seasoned with olive oil or vegetable oil.
- Nuts, berries and seeds are allowed for snacks.
- Of the allowed fruits: avocado, lemon, lime, but if you want something different it's quite acceptable.
- Chicken eggs.
- Food must contain water, unsweetened tea, coffee, mineral water. You must drink at least 2 liters of fluids per day.
- You can drink dry wine and strong alcohol: a glass of dry wine contains no more than 4-5 grams of carbohydrates, and is completely absent from vodka.
- Vegetables, preference is given to low-carbohydrate vegetables, based on the principle: those that grow on the ground should not (carrots, beets, potatoes), and those that can be above the ground (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, zucchini, leeks, lettuce). All fatty foods go well with green vegetables.
Ban on Keto Diet:
- all legumes and seeds - peas, beans, chickpeas, corn;
- low-fat dairy products - low-fat cottage cheese, milk, cream, yogurt, fermented baked milk, yogurt, kefir, varenet;
- sugar, sugary drinks, diluted juices, soda, candy;
- is not allowed to use snacks, chips, and crackers;
- all starchy vegetables: potatoes, pumpkin;
- must give up rice, cereals and pasta;
- foods made with white flour: pastries, muffins, croissants, buns, pasta.
You should completely eliminate sugar, some fruits and dried fruits.
Contraindicated keto diet
People with diseases of the nervous system, with diseases that accompany nerve cell damage, diabetic patients should be approached with caution for nutritional problems.
There are human keto diet contraindications:
- has epilepsy;
- diseases associated with disorders of the motor organs;
- the presence of chronic liver, kidney disease;
- gastrointestinal tract;
- with high cholesterol levels.
The ketone diet is not recommended for pregnant women or for certain medications.
Keto Diet: Menu for the Week
Nutritionists recommend using the diversity principle. A classic example of the keto diet for a week.
- breakfast - fatty cottage cheese without sugar and flour;
- lunch - any meat with a plant-based side dish;
- for dinner - mushrooms or chicken with herbs.
- breakfast - avocado salad with sour cream;
- for lunch - meatball with vegetables;
- at night - grilled fish with asparagus.
- breakfast - curd salad with vegetables;
- for lunch - turkey with broccoli;
- For dinner, you can make an American fish salad with celery sticks.
- in the morning - scrambled eggs, bacon and fatty yogurt;
- for lunch - braised chicken in sour cream sauce with vegetable side dishes;
- Dinner will consist of river fish.
- for breakfast - sugar-free cottage cheese;
- for lunch - green buckwheat with meat;
- at night - grilled meat with vegetables.
- breakfast - avocado salad with yogurt;
- for lunch - chicken cutlet with vegetable side dish;
- for dinner - stews and herbs.
- breakfast - boiled eggs and fatty cottage cheese;
- for lunch - beef stew with mushrooms;
- at night - chicken breast with fresh vegetables.
For an afternoon snack, you can eat nuts, avocado, berries, cheese, drink mineral water.
Recipes from the keto diet menu
The most common and simple dishes on the keto menu are scrambled eggs and bacon or cheese for breakfast. For lunch you can eat a serving of any meat with herbs, green beans. Fish can be eaten in any form with vegetables for dinner. For a snack, you can eat a handful of nuts. Portions can be large and small, as long as the body is saturated.
Here are some simple and complete meals that don't require an extra snack.
Fish salad:all fatty fish boiled or boiled, chopped, add: egg, pickled cucumber, onion, mayonnaise or 20% sour cream, You can add some lettuce sticks.
Chicken with bacon, stewed in sour cream with mushrooms:chunks of bacon, fried in olive oil or sunflower oil, removed from the pan when cooked, and the chicken pieces are placedIn place of chest, fry a few minutes until golden brown, add: water, chopped onions, mushrooms, fried bacon, sour cream, seasonings and all boil for a few more minutes.
Curd salad:finely chopped fresh cucumber, onions and chicory, add salt and spices, let stand for 10 minutes, so that the vegetables give juice and add fatty curd, Pour on top of sour cream mixed with mayonnaise.
There are many recipes for the keto diet, everyone can choose the best choice of allowed products.
This diet can be tasty and varied.
Stop the keto diet
After completing the course, in order not to spoil health and to get out of the keto diet useful, it is necessary to gradually reduce the amount of fat consumed. In order to maintain your metabolism and avoid the body in a state of stress, you need to gradually increase your intake of carbohydrates and protein in small portions.
Along with fat, calorie intake also decreases. Vegetables, cereals are gradually incorporated into the diet, avoiding sugar and starchy products. The daily intake of carbohydrates in the first days out of the diet should be from 70 to 100 grams, it is desirable to leave protein intake at the same level.
Drink lots of water to stay hydrated.
What nutritionists say about the keto diet
Nutritionists consider a universal ketogenic diet not only for weight loss and weight loss, but also recommends it for health improvement. With proper and strict adherence to dietary recipes, foods should contain: 80% fat, 10% protein and 10% carbohydrates.
Dietitians have written more than 30 scientific articles, and research over the years has shown that the ketogenic diet significantly accelerates the reduction of insulin in the blood, a hormone that promotes subcutaneous fat accumulation. Diet improves appetite control, diet suppresses the production of warming hormones, which trigger hunger. The muscle mass remains the same, the amount of subcutaneous fat decreases.
Scientific studies have shown that for the treatment of certain cardiovascular diseases, the ketogenic diet is a non-drug treatment.
Eating well nutrition is not only the key to losing weight, it also has a beneficial effect on the function of the digestive tract, heart, liver and kidneys.
A balanced diet that is rich in fat and moderate in protein and carbohydrates for a long time, supports a healthy lifestyle, extends youth, helps maintain good physical shape. Doctors recommend walking more in the fresh air, sleeping well, and only having natural products.